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Role of nitric oxide in cocaine effects

The observation that nNOS is linked to NMDAR subunits led to studies on the role of nNOS in the effects of cocaine. Chronic cocaine administration increased NOS activity in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, midbrain, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala and spinal cord of Swiss-Webster mice (Bhargava & Kumar, 1997). Acute systemic administration of cocaine facilitated NO efflux in […]

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The role of glutamate in drug-induced neuroadaptations

Historically, dopamine has been considered the major neurotransmitter involved in the effects of cocaine and other drugs of abuse. However, more recent studies have shown that the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate plays a central role in the behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine. Neuronal changes associated with cocaine use can convert cocaine-induced signals into long-term alterations […]

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The conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm

Learning and memory mechanisms play a major role in the development of maladaptive behaviors, including drug addiction (Hyman et al., 2006). The conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, which employs the principles of Pavlovian conditioning, can model learning and memory processes pertinent to addictive behavior (White & Carr, 1985). In classical conditioning (Pavlov, 1927), an unconditioned […]

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Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cocaine addiction

Although addicts are aware of the negative health, social and economic consequences of their drug abuse, they continue to compulsively seek and use illicit drugs. This begs the question “why can’t addicts just quit?” One response to this question is that drugs of abuse changes the brain in such a way that addicts lose control […]

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Epidemiology of cocaine abuse

Cocaine is a powerful addictive psychostimulant that was first extracted from coca leaves by Albert Niemann in 1859. It was not until the 1800s that cocaine use became popular in the medical community when Sigmund Freud, an Austrian psychoanalyst, promoted cocaine as a cure for depression and sexual impotence. Additionally, in 1886, cocaine’s popularity skyrocketed […]

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Comparison of Poems First Love and How Do I Love Thee

POETRY By; Mark Anthony Plata School: St. Mary, Fujairah How is the theme of love portrayed in the poems “First love”, “How do I love thee” and “When we two parted” In 1806 the family moved into Hope End, a country estate in Herefordshire. When she was only 12 she wrote a poem called, The […]

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History of Psychology

History of PsychologyPeople in today??™s society may be curious about the teachings of psychology. Others may wonder about what society can learn by studying psychology of the past. This understanding of psychology may assist psychologists with avoiding mistakes of the past and recognizing the important teachings for the future of mankind. This paper will indentify […]

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Comparison of National Convention and Nobility Regarding Louis Xvis Execution

COMPARISON OF SOURCES The first source says that the people are relieved by the end of the tyranny and oppression caused by the king, and show much ???approval for the public and for liberty???. It says that ???the victims??¦protested his existence??? and that people are less hostile than before the death of the King. The […]

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History of Psychology

History of Psychology What does the years 1632 and 1798 have to do with the history of psychology These were the years that John Locke and Auguste Comte were born. This paper will take you on a journey through the lives and theories that these two great men have contributed to the world of psychology. […]

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Comparison of Loyalty and Honor in Lanval, Chevrefoil, and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

Comparison of Loyalty and Honor Even though Marie de France integrated loyalty and honor into Chevrefoil and Lanval, the poet writing Sir Gawain and the Green Knight elevated both loyalty and honor to exceed previous works. While Chevrefoil portrayed loyalty and honor while exposing complex disloyalty and dishonor, Lanval depicted both loyalty and honor in […]

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