Category: Essays

Macro filters

The essence of the macro photography is reduced to the capabilities of the optical system. Famous macro photographers state that the most important characteristic is the possibility to get the largest possible projection of the object on the camera sensor. This is achieved through a large focal length and a short focusing distance. Advantages and […]

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Modernism vs. Postmodernism

In the context of the general laws and driving forces of the development of culture, Modernism vs. Postmodernism express the worldview of their time, a kind of protest against reality. Both phenomena of culture create new trends in philosophy, art and modernist literature. Cultural modernism is traditionally called the broad direction in European art and […]

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Pollution waste generated business called essay

Hazard load is a negative change in the environment as a result of its defilement, which entailed the degradation of natural ecological systems and depletion of natural resources.  Defilement path includes the ways of contamination of the environment. Since defilement factors can be associated with both natural processes and human activities, all defilement sources are […]

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Fear Conditioning

Maladaptive behaviors such as anxiety disorders are associated with learning and memory processes. Fear conditioning is often used as a model for understanding anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Like CPP experiments, fear conditioning is based on Pavlovian conditioning in which an organism learns to predict aversive events based on associative learning. The expression […]

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Signaling molecules involved in stress-induced reinstatement of Esc-C CPP

While the current studies identified that the NMDAR and NO-signaling play a role in stress-induced reinstatement of Fix-C CPP, an effective test drug against Esc-C memory was not identified. Since Esc-C memory represents a ‘stronger’ and more ‘resistant’ type of drug memory compared to Fix-C memory, there is a need to identify the signaling pathways […]

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Effect of extinction and withdrawal on NR2B

The current studies showed that antagonism of NR2B-containing NMDARs by ifenprodil effectively disrupted the acquisition and reconsolidation of Fix-C and Esc-C memory. However, ifenprodil had no effect on stress-induced reinstatement of Fix-C and Esc-C CPP. One possible explanation for this lack of effect is that NR2B subunit may have been replaced by NR2A during the […]

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Site-specific inhibition of signaling targets

The current studies employed systemically administered modulators of various signaling molecules and showed in some instances a similar effect on Fix-C and Esc-C memory while in other cases differential effects. While the use of pharmacological tools could be the gold standard for the treatment of human addicts, in order to better understand the mechanisms associated […]

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Silent synapses in cocaine-associated memory strength

Recent reports demonstrate that repeated cocaine exposure generate silent glutamatergic synapses which contribute to metaplasticity (Huang et al, 2009) and the development of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization (Brown et al, 2011). Silent synapses are glutamatergic synapses which express NMDAR-mediated currents in the absence of AMPAR-mediated currents (Isaac et al, 1995; Liao et al, 1995). Interestingly, in […]

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Future Directions Overview

My findings opened up several avenues for additional research. First, an investigation of the role of silent synapses (see below) in cocaine-associated memory strength will help to identify a mechanism through which NR2B-containing NMDARs contribute to Fix-C and Esc-C memory. Second, site-specific inhibition of signaling targets in the hippocampus and other brain regions associated with […]

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Stress-induced reinstatement of Fix-C and Esc-C memory

Vulnerability to relapse following prolonged periods of abstinence presents a major challenge to combating drug addiction. Stress is an unavoidable part of life and a major contributor to relapse to drug use. However, a thorough understanding of the neural mechanisms that sub-serve stress-mediated relapse is lacking. In Chapter 4, the contribution of different signaling molecules […]

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