History Of Popular Music
Origins of Music
Form of music first came about in the 1600??™s; this is when the ???Slave Trade??™ was active and when slaves were being traded from Africa being sent to various places such as England and the U.S.A. Active ports were Plymouth Rock and New Orleans. Slaves were put to work in fields that were owned by white land owners. Out of this came, ???field hollers and work songs??™ It was a way of entertaining themselves as they work, the slaves weren??™t allowed to talk to one another so it was often a way of communicating with each other. It??™s said that it was even a way of planning things such as escape plans. It was a mixture of tune and speech, similar to modern day James Brown screeching vocals. It was often religious or spiritual words.
Generally I think that this style of music was how blues came about. You can hear this with the similar melodies and the scale that is used which is the Pentatonic scale. It was also the birth of what could be called the ???Blues Note??™ which is in between major and minor. The field hollers and work songs also have distant vocals. You can hear influences in modern day music in artists such as; Moby who has not only used this vocal style but actually used an old recording on his tracks, here are 3 good examples; My Weakness, Run On and Find My Baby. Kanye West is another artist who has managed to combine this style in to his own music by taking clips of music from a later artist of this style called Ray Charles; I think this shows how it??™s carried on and still being used.Spiritual This was created by American slaves before liberation, It was used to express spiritual views and it was also used to speak opinions about the social and political on goings of the time. It still used the pentatonic scale, as above, used repetition of religious themes. It was heavily based on emotion and feeling so timing felt ???free??™. Vocal harmonies were introduced and these were later on used in Gospel style music. You can hear the African roots and the use of chords I, IV and V, the blues structure.
It can be seen in the music today with Ray Charles, who also influenced mixing Gospel with RnB.Ragtime
This was the first truly American style of music predating the Jazz. It began as dance music and peaked popularity between 1899 and 1918. It is usually written in 2/4 or 4/4 timing. Consists of odd-numbered beats and chords on even beats and accompanied by a syncopated melody. Has a V to I bass line, a complex melody, repetitious chord structure and often a ???call and response??™ feel between the melody and the chords.Delta Blues
This is one of the earliest styles of blues music, originated in the Mississippi delta. The Primary instruments are guitar and harmonica. The vocal styles ranged from reflective and soulful to passionate and fiery. Slide guitar and an emphasis on rhythm. A chord structure of mainly I, IV and V.Dixieland Jazz
A style of Jazz that was developed in New Orleans at the start of the 20th Century. New Orleans bands spread the music to New York City and Chicago. Dixieland Jazz combined brass band marches, French quadrilles, Ragtime and Blues with collective contribution by trombone, clarinet over a rhythm section that contained; piano, guitar, banjo, drums and a double bass or tuba. Soloists began from Dixieland bands such as Charlie Parker. The bass line is almost the same as Ragtime music but without the chords, There is interplay between the solo instruments.R & B
R&B was originally the term used for music by black people for black people, that wasn??™t religious or classical. Started in late 1940??™s and became popular in the 50??™s. There are influences from Blues, Jazz and Gospel. Still chords I, IV and V dominating the genre. Ray Charles is again a good example of this style, R&B has huge blues influences in particular, The vocals use the blues scale style but with the passion of gospel. It has a shuffle rhythm, a horn section, piano, drums and an upright bass [showing the jazz influence]. Call and response is feature in this style, which is a classic African American trademark.Soul
Combines rhythm and blues with gospel music, it came about during the 1960??™s and originated from Memphis, Tennessee. Early Artists Wilson Picket, Otis Readding and Midnight Hour all show a good example of ???Soul??™ and the use of the Blues structure. Horns are used which represent Jazz influences. There is also a walking bass line and the style is generally very melodic, straight beat with drums and bass. A huge gospel influence in the singing, very preacher like. Also another sign of gospel influence is the use of the Hammond organ. Example of all of this is Otis Readding??™s try a little tenderness; it has suspended notes and jazzy chords.Motown
Motown is a sub ??“ genre of Soul. Originating in Detroit, Michigan and founded by Producer Berry Gordy. Typical Motown uses Tambourine with drums, melodic bass lines and call and response style vocals. Famous Motown Artists include;
??? The Temptations
??? Martha Reeves and The Vandella??™s
??? The Supremes
??? Marvin Gaye
??? Al Green
Motown style likes to use tambourines and ???phat??™ sounding bass lines that stand out. It defiantly has a powerful vocal style and often the songs were about relationships and emotions. Marvin Gaye is the best example to listen to with his powerful voice, emotive lyrics, thunderous bass lines and call and response use.Funk
This was developed from 1965 on wards by James Brown, it was a combination of Jazz, Soul and R&B. Instrumentation similar to Gospel and Blues including the Hammond Organ. Funk was the first to play with off beat rhythms and this is what gave Funk its Groove and characteristics. It developed further during the 1970??™s and eventually progressed, crossing over to influence different styles such as rock.
An example is James Brown ??“ Cold Sweat, in this there are preacher style vocals and definitive break beat drums. A clear call and response between brass instruments, Funk also, in my opinion, took the noticeable bass line??™s and ideas from Motown and exaggerated them and boosted them making the bass phatter and the riffs more ???groovy??™.James Brown
He is commonly referred to as “The Godfather of Soul”, “King of Funk”, and “The Hardest Working Man in Show Business”, He is recognized as one of the most influential figures in 20th century popular music and was known for his shouting vocals, feverish dancing and unique rhythmic style. As a highly successful singer, songwriter, bandleader, and record producer, Brown was a pivotal force in the evolution of gospel and rhythm and blues into soul and funk. He left his mark on so many other musical genres, including rock, jazz, disco, dance and electronic music, reggae and hip hop. Brown began his professional music career in 1953, and rose to fame during the late 1950s and early 1960s on the strength of his thrilling live performances and string of smash hits. In spite of various personal problems and setbacks he continued to score hits in every decade through to the 1980s. In addition to his acclaim in music, Brown was a presence in American political affairs during the 1960s and 1970s, noted especially for his activism on behalf of fellow African Americans and the poor. During the early 1980s, Browns music helped to shape the rhythms of early hip-hop music, with numerous groups looping or sampling his funk grooves and turning them into what became hip hop classics and the foundations of the music genre.
I think he was so successful because of raw talent and hard work, he deserved to be where he was and he proved everyone wrong that thought he didn??™t deserve it. His passion for music meant that he never stopped doing it, which meant his fan base could only grow and grow over the years of performing and writing. He craved perfection and worked hard to get it as close to perfect as he could. I think he inspired so many artists of today not in just influencing style of music but influencing them to work hard and never stop.Disco
It became popular during mid to late 70??™s. Disco uses a simple 4/4 beat an eighth note or sixteenth note hi-hat pattern, with an open hi-hat on the off beat and a syncopated electric bass line. Disco uses; Strings, electric pianos, electric guitars to create the background sounds. The solo instruments, like flute, are mainly used for the melody and unlike rock music, lead guitar is rarely used, Films of the time such as ???Night Fever??™ contributed into making disco a popular genre.
Disco Artists include;
??? Gloria Gaynor
??? Bee Gee??™s
The guitar patterns and bass line ???loops??™ show a strong influence from Funk. Disco also has influences of Soul, horn backing, sometimes big orchestral backing, it has straight drums and all in one outfits resembling disco balls. Good Times!House It was developed by Dance DJ??™s in Chicago in early to mid 80??™s. The drum machine was really what is responsible for the birth of House music, Followed disco??™s use of a prominent bass drum on every beat and developed a new style of mixing in a heavy electronic synthesizer bass line, electronic drums, electronic effects, funk and pop samples and reverb or delay enhanced vocals. House is still a popular genre today however it has evolved leaps and bounds as the technology has progressed, as when House first came out it was restricted by the technology of the 80??™s. In a way its content was minimalist, there were straight drum beats and in some cases soulful influences can be heard in the vocals, however this isn??™t the case today. Another signature factor of House music is that it is repetitive beyond words. A good example of a typical House ???artist??™ is Jesse Saunders.Hip-Hop
Hip-hop began primarily in New York 1970??™s, initially among African Americans and Latino??™s when DJ??™s began isolating the percussion from Funk or Disco for people to Dance too. Typically consists of a rhythmic style of speaking called rap over backing beats performed on a turntable by a DJ. Beats are traditionally sampled from portions of other songs by a DJ, though synthesizers drum machines and live bands are also used, especially in more recent Hip-Hop music. Lyrics cover a wide variety of social and political. Public Enemy refined the production and used highly politically motivated. I feel a growing subject in lyrics of Hip-Hop is the issue of racism, its powerful and everybody has an opinion on it, so I think this is rather clever.Dance Constructed by electronic instruments such as synthesizers, drum machines and sequencers, and generally emphasizes the unique sounds of house instruments. Electronic dance music is typically composed using computers and synthesizers, and rarely has any physical instruments played live for the track, instead this is replaced by sampled percussive beats or phrases. Dance has developed a massive social status. Examples of dance artists include; ??? Squarepusher ??? Platipus ??? FaithlessDance music was the second popular music path to form in the 1950??™s out of the blues, it was one popularised and characterised mostly by white people.Country
Country music emerged in the 1920??™s with the idea of mixing white and black music together, of the time. It became nationally popular in the 1950??™s with the rise of artists based in Nashville, Tennesse, and through the Western films made in Hollywood. The Nashville sound borrowed ideas from 1950??™s pop, including prominent vocals. Drums weren??™t fully integrated until the 60??™s. Lyrics were always about life in general, love, stories and childhood seen quite popular topics in country.Example of Country Musicians;
??? Arthur ???guitar boogie??? smith ??? Johnny Cash ??? Chet Atkins ??? Garth Brooks ??? Kenny Rogers ??? Dolly PartonEarly examples include simple guitar, vocals and strings no percussion and uses the blues chords I, IV and V. Later country chord structure progresses, Dolly Parton (Jolene). My opinion on country is that today it still has a huge audience in southern U.S.A but I don??™t think it ever really ???hit it off??™ in the U.K like it did in the U.S, in the U.S it seems to be a life style.Rock ???n??™ Roll Rock ???n??™ Roll evolved in the U.S in the late 1940??™s and early 1950??™s. Played with one or two electric guitars (one lead, one rhythm), a string bass or (after the mid 50??™s)an electric bass guitar, and a drum kit. Early rock and roll styles had piano or saxophones as the lead instrument, but these were generally replaced or supplemented by guitar in the mid 50??™s. The beat is essentially a boogie Woogie blues rhythm with an accentuated backbeat. Rock n Roll became, and still is, massively popular worldwide.Notable artists-
??? Chuck Berry ??? Bill Haley ??? Elvis Presley ??? Bo Diddley ??? Little RichardRock and roll is heavily structured around Blues, a good example of typical rock and roll is Bill Haley??™s ??“ Rock around the clock which has a strong walking bass line.Beat Music
Beat Music is a fusion of rock n roll, doo wop, skiffle and R&B it evolved in the early 1960??™s.A different name was given to the style of music depending on where the bands came from, for example merseybeat. Manly guitar led with the emphasis on vocal harmonies in verses and choruses, delivering catchy melodies.The bass guitar is usually playing only on the root and fifth notes of the chords along with the bass drum, although often the bass guitar will play walking and boogie bass lines.Beat music typically uses minor chords as well, especially in the middle eight. Focus is on the presentation of the song rather than instrumental skill.Notable Artists:
??? The Hollies ??? The Searchers ??? The Dave Clark FiveRock
Rock music is a form of popular music with a prominent vocal melody, accompanied by electric guitar, bass guitar, and drums. Many styles of rock music also use keyboard instruments such as organ, piano, and synthesizers. Rock music has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll and rockabilly, which evolved from blues, country music and other influences.
Blues played louder, faster and with more distortion. Famous artists of the time involve; ??? Jimi Hendrix ??? Joni Mitchell ??? The Rolling Stones ??? Bob Dylan ??? Cream ??? The Doors The Rolling Stones Formed in London and having their first success in the UK, they subsequently became popular in the US during the “British Invasion” in the early 1960s. The bands early recordings were mainly covers of American blues and R&B songs. Their 1965 single “(I Cant Get No) Satisfaction” established the Rolling Stones as a premier rock and roll act. Starting with their 1966 album Aftermath, the songs, expanded ever growing stylistic flexibility. The Rolling Stones have released 22 studio albums in the UK (24 in the US), eight concert albums (nine in the US) and numerous compilations; they have had 32 UK & US top-10 singles, 43 UK & US top-10 albums between 1964 and 2008, and have sold more than 200 million albums worldwide. 1971s Sticky Fingers began a string of eight consecutive studio albums at number one in the United States. In 1989 the Rolling Stones were inducted into the American Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and in 2004 they were ranked number 4 in Rolling Stone magazines 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. In my opinion The Rolling Stones were such a break through in modern popular music as they incorporated various musical genres into their recording and performance; ultimately making the styles their very own. They used musical styles like American blues, country, folk, reggae, dance, as well as traditional English styles that use stringed instrumentation like harps. The band took a load of genres and put them all together , and when u make music that will appeal to that many genres audiences then your bound to be successful and stay successful.Sub-genre??™s from the 60??™s
??? Cliff Richard ??? The KinksBlues
??? The YardbirdsSurf (SoCal)
??? The ShadowsFolk Rock
??? The ByrdsPsychedelic Rock ??“
Attempts to replicate the mind ??“ altering experience of hallucinogenic drugs by using lyrics that use bizarre sounds created by altering the instruments and vocals with electronic effects such as a tape loop echoes and delays, phase shifting, or reversed sounds.Psychedelic rock is a bridge from early blues ??“ based rock to progressive rock and heavy metal, but it also drew on non ??“ western sources such as Indian music??™s ragas and sitar. Many bands went ???psychedelic??? after starting off all clean and nice in the mainstream for example ???The Beatles??™Other Examples include;
??? Pink Floyd ??? The DoorsPossible to say psychedelic music was a rebellious action towards beat music.Progressive Rock-
Progressive Rock evolved in the late 1960??™s and 70??™s as part of a mostly British attempt to elevate rock music to new levels of artistic credibility. Progressive rock bands pushed rock??™s technical and compositional boundaries by going beyond the standard rock or popular verse chorus based song structures. Used concept albums that made unified statements, usually telling an epic story or tackling a grand overarching theme. Instrumental songs are more common, and songs with lyrics are sometimes conceptual, abstract, or based in fantasy.Hard Rock ??? Led Zeppelin ??? Deep Purple ??? Black Sabbath ??? Aerosmith ??? AC/DC ??? Guns n RosesHeavy Metal ??? Alice Cooper ??? Van Halen, and in 2007 ??? NWOBHM ??? MetallicaPunk ??? The Clash ??? Sex Pistols ??? Ramones ??? Green DayGrunge??¦.is a subgenre of alternative rock that emerged during the mid-1980s in the American state of Washington, particularly in the Seattle area. Inspired by hardcore punk, heavy metal and indie rock, grunge is generally characterized by heavily distorted electric guitars, contrasting song dynamics, and apathetic or angst-filled lyrics. The grunge aesthetic is stripped-down compared to other forms of rock music, and many grunge musicians were noted for their unkempt appearances and rejection of theatrics. Grunge became commercially successful in the first half of the 1990s, due mainly to the release of Nirvanas Nevermind and Pearl Jams Ten. The success of these bands boosted the popularity of alternative rock and made grunge the most popular form of hard rock music at the time.NirvanaNirvana formed by singer/guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic in Aberdeen, Washington. Nirvana went through a succession of drummers, the longest-lasting being Dave Grohl, who joined the band in 1990. Their first album was ???nevermind??™ they were weren??™t expecting the huge success it was; after the release of their first single, that the sales for it went mad there 1991 tour ???dangerously??™ sold out, By Christmas 1991, Nevermind was selling 400,000 copies a week in the US. On January 11, 1992, the album reached number one on the Billboard album charts, replacing Michael Jacksons album Dangerous. The album also topped the charts in numerous countries worldwide. The month Nevermind reached number one, Billboard proclaimed, “Nirvana is that rare band that has everything: critical acclaim, industry respect, pop radio appeal, and a rock-solid college/alternative base.” Nirvana performed at the MTV Video Music Awards. During the first rehearsal for the show, Cobain announced that they were going to play a new song during the broadcast, and the band rehearsed “Rape Me”. MTVs executives were appalled by the song, and, according to show producer Amy Finnerty, the executives believed that the song was about them. They insisted that the band could not play “Rape Me”, even threatening to throw Nirvana off of the show and stop airing their videos entirely. After a series of intense discussions, MTV and Nirvana agreed that the band would play “Lithium”, their latest single. When the band began their performance, Cobain strummed and sang the first few bars of “Rape Me”, one last jab at MTVs executives, before breaking into “Lithium”.Nirvana were substantially different to anything around at that time they influenced bands of today such as; Biffy Clyro; they took the grunge genre and elaborated on, using more complex guitar riffs but still keeping the grunge feel about it.I think that the main reason Nirvana were so successful is because they had more energy compared to the grunge bands of the time. They had good backing for publicity as MTV was on their side this came because they were signed to a major label where as other bands such as Pearl Jam wanted to keep more underground. Nirvana wanted the success but didn??™t want to be told what to do, the controversy only excelled their fame, making them more appealing to young teenagers wanting to rebel against the grain of society. I think the reason they hold such a legendary status is because they were highly commended musicians going against the normality even if it resulted in bad publicity. I think that the audience they had related to them and I think the reason they still have a large following today is because rebellion will always be appealing to young angry teenagers.Brit PopBritpop is a subgenre of alternative rock that originated in the United Kingdom. Britpop emerged from the British independent music scene of the early 1990s and was characterised by bands influenced by British guitar pop music of the 1960s and 1970s. The movement developed as a reaction against various musical and cultural trends in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ??? Oasis ??? Blur ??? Arctic Monkeys Oasis Oasis is an English rock band that formed in Manchester in 1991. The group was formed by Liam Gallagher (lead vocals), Paul Arthurs (guitar), Paul McGuigan (bass) and Tony McCarroll (drums), who were soon joined by Liams older brother Noel Gallagher (lead guitar, vocals). Oasis have sold more than 50 million albums worldwide, and have had eight UK number one singles. The Gallagher brothers are the bands leading songwriters and the only continual members. The present lineup is completed by rhythm/lead guitarist and songwriter Gem Archer, guitarist and songwriter Andy Bell and unofficial drummer Zak Starkey. The band initially gained a fan base performing on the Manchester club circuit. They were signed to independent record label Creation Records and afterwards released their debut album Definitely Maybe in 1994. The following year, the band recorded (Whats the Story) Morning Glory (1995). The Gallagher brothers were featured regularly in newspapers for their sibling rivalry and wild lifestyles, creating reputations both as bad boys and as a band of the people. At the height of their fame, Oasis third album, Be Here Now (1997), became the fastest-selling album in UK chart history. Oasis have gone on to influence so many bands of today such as; the libertines, Arctic Monkeys, The Coral, The Killers and Kasabian. They continue to have a massive fan base although not so much in the public eye anymore, in a way I think this is good because finally they will be appreciated just for their music. I think much like Nirvana, there was something about their attitude and their lyrics that felt familiar to their audience.
History Of Popular Music